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VIABILITY OF FINANCIAL DERIVATIVE (STOCK OPTION) SECURITIES MARKET: A CASE OF NAIROBI STOCK EXCHANGE

VIABILITY OF FINANCIAL DERIVATIVE (STOCK OPTION) SECURITIES MARKET: A CASE OF NAIROBI STOCK EXCHANGE

Vincent Ouma Nyagilo - Master of Science in Energy Management, Kenyatta University, Kenya(Change)


ABSTRACT

Financial markets are, by nature, extremely volatile and hence the risk factor is an important concern for financial agents. To reduce this risk, the concepts of derivatives are products whose values are derived from one basic variable called base. The derivatives market performs a number of economic functions; they help in transferring risks from risk averse investors to risk oriented investors, help in the discovery of future as well as current prices, catalyze entrepreneurial activity, increase the volume traded in markets. This study provides a basic overview of stock option market focusing on its non-existence in Kenya security market. It further sought to find out the viability of establishing financial derivatives market in particular stock option. It also sought to assess the readiness of Nairobi Stock Exchange market and its participants for the development of stock market. When asked if stock option minimize risks, both categories or respondents agreed at 68.5% for individual investors and 82.8% for brokers. The respondents differed on whether option is useful only for large investors. The individual investors disagreed totally, while brokers agreed at 54.6%. On whether there is need for hedging against price change or not, both respondents disagreed at 58.6% for individual investors and 63.6% for brokers. They also disagreed at 96.6% and 66.7% for individual investors and brokers respectively, that there already exists adequate means to minimize stock price risk. Finally, when asked if option trading may not be profitable, the respondents disagreed with a majority of 87.8%. The analysis shows that there are contradictions between brokers and investors on issues and conditions required to establish stock option market, this is mainly manifested by the likely threats that are envisaged by brokers with introduction of stock option market. The study found out that Nairobi Stock Exchange is not technologically ready for stock option market. However, Kenyan security market is found to be viable for stock option market. Findings further illustrated that establishment of stock option market in Nairobi Stock Exchange is viable through Government intervention by developing required infrastructure in terms of modernization of the security markets and enactment of policies and legal framework that entice investors and protect market participants.


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FACTORS AFFECTING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN DAY SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BORABU DISTRICT IN KENYA

FACTORS AFFECTING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN DAY SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BORABU DISTRICT IN KENYA

Wycliffe Magati Ndege - Master of Science in Energy Management, Kenyatta University, Kenya(Change)(Primary Author)

Dr Kefa Bosire - Master of Science in Electronics and Instrumentation, Kenyatta University, Kenya(Change)(Co Author)

Dr.Nobert Ogeta - Master of Science in Electronics and Instrumentation, Kenyatta University, Kenya(Change)(Co Author)


ABSTRACT

The general low academic performance in Borabu District could be associated with home,school, teacher and student factors. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of home, school, teacher and student factors on the academic performance of day secondary schools in Borabu District. The objectives of the study were to find out the influence of: home, school, student and teacher factors on the academic performance of day secondary schools. The study used the qualitative research methodology with a descriptive survey design. The target population of the study constituted 6 day secondary schools, 738 students, 47 classroom teachers and 6 head teachers. Data analysis was done through means, frequencies and percentages. The study revealed that factors that influence the academic performance of the day secondary schools are home related: family size, financial burden, work at home, parental attitude towards education and parenting style; School related : teacher relationship with students, teaching/learning facilities, curriculum implementation, management style, distance of schools from home and time management; Student related : entry mark, sexual behavior, self-esteem, peer group influence, school dropout influence, attitude towards the school and ambition towards academic excellence and teacher related factors :teacher level of education, teaching experience, teacher attitudes towards students, teaching load, teacher motivation, teacher preparation and ongoing training. The study recommendations were that the parents should be sensitized on the need to have a positive attitude towards the day scholars and to provide them with the relevant study materials. The findings of this study provide useful information to educational planners, policy makers, managers and administrators on policies that will promote access, retention and completion of secondary education cycle and good academic performance. Key Words: Academic performance, teacher related factors, day school, curriculum implementation, wastage, internal efficiency, output.


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FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORTALITY FROM HYPERTENSION IN PATIENTS ATTENDING MOI TEACHING AND REFERRAL HOSPITAL

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORTALITY FROM HYPERTENSION IN PATIENTS ATTENDING MOI TEACHING AND REFERRAL HOSPITAL

Dr. Leah Chebet Bii - Master of Science in Energy Management, Kenyatta University, Kenya(Change)

Ambrose Jagongo - Master of Science in Electronics and Instrumentation, Kenyatta University, Kenya(Change)


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Like other deaths, mortality from hypertension is a product of multiple determinants acting at many levels. Unfortunately, it is unknown which group of factors contribute most to these deaths in our setting. The aim of this study was to assess the association of different risk factors and hypertension deaths at MTRH. 

Methods: This was a retrospective study based on hospital data on demographic, socio-economic, environmental, health services, and medical factors associated with hypertension mortality between January 1998 and March 2004 for adults aged 30 and older. The main outcome measures were mortality occurrence within 24 hours, and within a week of hospital admission respectively. Stratified sampling technique was used, and data analyzed using SPSS-statistical package. Logistic regression models, ANOVA and Chi- square tests were used in analyses to determine possible association between mortality and respective independent factors.

Results: The proportion of male deaths was higher than that of the females (p = 0.014). Elderly patients and those without a positive family history of hypertension had a lower risk of dying within 24 hours of admission when compared with their counterparts. Adjusted for similar factors, current alcohol users were more likely to die than the ex-drinkers, just as were lower social class cases compared with their counterparts although the relationships were not significant at the 5% level. Cases with low blood pressure levels were more likely to die than those with severe levels of BP. Controlling for age, sex, time of review, and problem identification in a logistic model, it was found that the level of admission diastolic BP is a potential good predictor of mortality outcome within 24 hours of admission (OR = 0.915, 95% CI: 0.859 to 0.974, p = 0.005). Within a week of admission, previously treated hypertensives were more likely to die when compared with their non-treated counterparts. The risk of death for cases that were placed into the resuscitation room was more than 6 times that of cases admitted straight to the wards (OR = 6.341, 95% CI:1.295 to 31.045, p = 0.023). Renal unit patients had a significantly higher risk of dying when compared with amenity ward patients (OR = 11.324, 95% CI: 1.065 to 120.452, p = 0.044), as did medical ward patients. Results indicated that the risk of death in the groups with pneumonia exceeded the same risk in the groups without this infection. Hypertensive heart failure cases had a higher risk of dying when compared with those with hypertensive heart and renal disease (OR = 7,002, 95% CI: 1.304 to 37.600, p = 0.023), as did hypertensive renal failure cases (OR = 13.097, 95% CI: 2.188 to 78.390, p = 0.005).

Conclusions: Hypertension mortality is the result of a complex web of risk factors, including younger age, male sex, and family history, low BP levels at admission, prior treatment, heart failure, renal impairment, pneumonia, and general medical wards. Our findings show that the interventions needed to prolong life and possibly reduce mortality are available, but reform initiatives are required to assist in formulating health policies and guide resources aimed at addressing the needs of the patients with hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors.


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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY FOR ENERGY AND PETROLEUM FIRMS IN KENYA

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY FOR ENERGY AND PETROLEUM FIRMS IN KENYA

Fredrick Wanyonyi - Master of Science in Energy Management, Kenyatta University, Kenya(Change)

Ambrose Jagongo - Master of Science in Electronics and Instrumentation, Kenyatta University, Kenya(Change)


ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between working capital management and profitability for energy and petroleum firms in Kenya. The specific objective where to establish the relationship between working capital management and profitability of energy and petroleum companies Kenya. To analyze the collective effect of cash conversion cycles with working capital management and profitability and to analyze the effects of inventory management on profitability. To undertake this study, the research design for this study was casual. A casual research was used to explore the relationship between variables. The population composed of Kenyan energy and petroleum firms listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The quoted firms were assumed to have structured financial systems and likely to have specific working capital management policies and procedures in place. Since the population is small (four firms) it was considered prudent to use the entire population in the sturdy. In the view of small number of energy and petroleum firms quoted on the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE), the researcher sampled the whole population of firms to achieve the targeted precision level. Cooper observers that the trade off between the depth and breadth of the research affects the sample size and the adequacy of a sample in this type of research is judged by how comprehensively and completely the research questions are answered by the sample size. In order to meet the objectives of the study the questionnaire consisted of 17 questions divided into three parts as per research objectives. Data was analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Regression and correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and strength of the relationship between independent and dependent variables. The relationship of average collection period, inventory conversion period and average payment period with return on equity was analyzed in this study. Based on the regression and correlation analysis of each of the companies, the findings indicate that the energy and petroleum firms’ performance is influenced by the variables relating to working capital. There is a positive relationship between profitability and average collection period and inventory conversion period. Average payment period shows a negative relationship with profitability. Most of the profits in Energy and Petroleum firms in Kenya is attributable to working capital management. The study concludes that there exist a relationship between WCM and financial performance of Energy and Petroleum firms in Kenya. The study recommends that for the Energy and Petroleum firms to remain profitable, they should employ working capital management practice that will help in making decisions about investment mix and policy, matching investment to objective, asset allocation for institution and balancing risk against profitability.


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EFFECTS OF E-PROCUREMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN FIVE STAR HOTELS IN NAIROBI CITY, KENYA

EFFECTS OF E-PROCUREMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN FIVE STAR HOTELS IN NAIROBI CITY,
KENYA
Otieno Nelly Cynthia
Masters Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Dr. Mike A. Iravo
Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

ABSTRACT
In the hotel business, the flow of goods, services, and information should be designed to
efficiently transform raw materials into finished products/services with values. Lodging Services
regularly purchase a large quantity of supplies for which procurement systems play a crucial role
in maintaining daily operations and quality. Today, a major goal of a hotel’s supply chain
management is to efficiently apply information technology to its procurement systems. (Tanvi&
Clark, 2005). The study was aimed at exploring how cost effectiveness can influence efficiency
in supply chain management, the transparency that is brought about in E-procurement and time
effectiveness brought about by E-procurement in five star hotels in Nairobi City Country. The
study endeavored to use descriptive research design since it deals with clearly defined problems.
The study targeted five star hotels in Nairobi City County which are fifteen in number.
Convenience sampling was used in the study since the study is targeting respondents that have
the right information. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires which had
open and close ended questions. The data was later analyzed using SPSS version 20 for the
purposes of generating results in form of tables and graphs for report writing. The study
concluded that through e-procurement the cost of procurement has been reduced significantly in
terms of the manpower needed as well as the materials that were used in conventional
procurement. Transparency has also been achieved since cases of fraud have been reduced as
well as the ability to follow up electronically on procurement activities that have become easier
to manage. The procurement time has also been efficiently managed since most of the official
documents are electronically generated while at the same time storage and retrieval of
information has become easier and faster. The study recommends that organizations that want to
have a competitive edge should adopt e-procurement to make their supply chains faster and more
efficient.

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCUREMENT OF ERP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCUREMENT OF ERP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR
Charity Nkonge: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Lecturer: Dr. Agnes Njeru: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

ABSTRACT

Re-insurance industry plays a key role in Kenya’s development. Very few companies have
deployed Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system in their management of the supply chain
despite the fact that ERP touches many core aspects of a firm’s operations; hence, its successful
implementation and use are critical to performance and survival of an organization. In most
cases, implementation of ERP fails at the procurement phase with translucent factors. The main
objective of this study was to determine the factors that affect the procurement of ERP. The
specific objectives were to find out whether Information Technology Infrastructure, Legislative
Issues and Supply Chain Functions Management affect the procurement of ERP. This Research
adopted an exploratory study with a case study of Kenya-Reinsurance Corporation Ltd (Kenya
Re). The target population for the study was the 120 employees in Kenya-Re. The sample size
was50 respondents selected from different departments using stratified sampling method. Data
was collected using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics such as
frequency tables and charts and inferential statistics correlation analysis using SPSS computer
software. The study concluded that IT infrastructure in public companies is not flexible because
hence leading to either delays or avoidance of ERP procurement. The study also concluded that
the main legal cause of non-procurement of ERP in the public sector is as a result of external
environment. The study recommends that ERP should be categorized as an essential supply as
public policy framework should be enhanced to support faster decision making when it comes to
procurement of ERP as it is very essential in the smooth running of the organization. The study
also recommends that Public organizations should digitalize all their systems in readiness to the
procurement of ERPs since all the systems to be supported by an ERP has to be digitalized since
a successful ERP implementation requires a fit between the ERP system and the organizational
processes it supports. Further research should be carried out to establish the skill levels and the
effectiveness of the ERP trainers in public sector.

 

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EFFECTS OF E-PROCUREMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN FIVE STAR HOTELS IN NAIROBI CITY, KENYA

EFFECTS OF E-PROCUREMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN FIVE STAR HOTELS IN NAIROBI CITY, KENYA

Otieno Nelly CynthiaMasters Student, Kenya Methodist University, Kenya

Dr. Mike A. Iravo - Lecturer, Kenya Methodist University, Kenya


ABSTRACT

In the hotel business, the flow of goods, services, and information should be designed to efficiently transform raw materials into finished products/services with values. Lodging Services regularly purchase a large quantity of supplies for which procurement systems play a crucial role in maintaining daily operations and quality. Today, a major goal of a hotel’s supply chain management is to efficiently apply information technology to its procurement systems. (Tanvi& Clark, 2005). The study was aimed at exploring how cost effectiveness can influence efficiency in supply chain management, the transparency that is brought about in E-procurement and time effectiveness brought about by E-procurement in five star hotels in Nairobi City Country. The study endeavored to use descriptive research design since it deals with clearly defined problems. The study targeted five star hotels in Nairobi City County which are fifteen in number. Convenience sampling was used in the study since the study is targeting respondents that have the right information. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires which had open and close ended questions. The data was later analyzed using SPSS version 20 for the purposes of generating results in form of tables and graphs for report writing. The study concluded that through e-procurement the cost of procurement has been reduced significantly in terms of the manpower needed as well as the materials that were used in conventional procurement. Transparency has also been achieved since cases of fraud have been reduced as well as the ability to follow up electronically on procurement activities that have become easier to manage. The procurement time has also been efficiently managed since most of the official documents are electronically generated while at the same time storage and retrieval of information has become easier and faster. The study recommends that organizations that want to have a competitive edge should adopt e-procurement to make their supply chains faster and more efficient.

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STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA TO COMBAT FRAUD: A SURVEY OF SELECTED COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA

STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA TO COMBAT FRAUD: A SURVEY OF SELECTED COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA

Jimmy Mutuku Mwithi - Kenya Methodist University

Dr. Joseph Ngugi Kamau - Lecturer, Kenya Methodist University 


ABSTRACT

Over the past 10 years, commercial banks across the globe have experienced an upsurge of losses arising from frauds that affect customers’ accounts as well as the banks’ internal accounts. In Kenya, as in other rapidly developing countries, the impact of the upsurge in frauds has been particularly hard on the fragile financial infrastructure. The discussions of this paper sought to explore strategies adopted by commercial banks to combat fraud in commercial banking sector in Kenya. Specifically the paper sought to explore influence of know your customer, crime and anti-money laundering, technology and internal controls issues to combating fraud. Based on the objectives, the study concluded that legal Framework set by organizations and central banks such as verification of client personal information assist in combating fraud to a great extent. Most of the organization had access to personal and private information that they use in combating fraud to a great extent. On internal control, the study concluded that commercial banks are major institutions responsible for controlling accounts conducts and relationship. Finally, the study concluded that Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) mode of payment is associated with less frauds compared to manual methods of payments to a great extent.  


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INFLUENCE OF STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP ON UNIVERSITY PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF KARATINA UNIVERSITY

INFLUENCE OF STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP ON UNIVERSITY PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF KARATINA UNIVERSITY 

Moses Muturi Murimi - Lecturer, Karatina University

Dr. Humprey Omondi - Lecturer, Karatina University


ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of stakeholders’ involvement in organizational leadership on Karatina University performance. The autocratic, democratic, tranformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles have been extensively discussed. Descriptive research design was employed on a target population of Karatina University’s stakeholders. Using stratified random sampling technique the study sample 10 lecturers and 30 students from the student council. Primary data was collected using semistructured questionnaires. The data collected was analyzed using decriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage) and multiple linear regression model using ordinary least square method. The mixed models analysis shows that although the impact of directive leadership on performance was contingent in nature, the positive effect of participative leadership on their performance was above and beyond those of autocratic tendencies. The result showed that leadership styles significantly predicted performance with teh help of stakeholdrs involvement: stakeholder involvement (β=1.403, p = .012) was found to account for more variance in performance than leadership style (β=.571, p = .002). The implications for practice and theory have been discussed


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THE EFFECT OF TABLE BANKING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MICRO AND SMALL ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI COUNTY

THE EFFECT OF TABLE BANKING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MICRO AND SMALL ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI COUNTY

Carolyn M. Kariuki - Masters Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Patrick Karanja Ngugi - Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) play a big role in social economic development in terms of employment creation and their significant contribution to the economy’s output of goods and services (Muthuri 2011). The Economic Survey (2006) states that the sector contributed over 50% of the new jobs created in 2005. Despite their significance, past statistics indicate that three out of five businesses fail within the first few months of operation (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2007).The Government, private institutions and NGOs have come up with interventions like Table Banking to boost the performance of these enterprises. However, according to the 4th Annual Progress Report 2011-2012 (2013), the effect this concept has had on MSEs has not been determined. Consequently, this study aimed at delving deeper into this subject and coming up with a comprehensive report on it. The target group population was 2,340 Table Banking Group members in Nairobi managed by Maono Initiative, Joyful Women and SMEI. A sample of 10% was drawn using stratified random sampling technique to get a sample size of 234 respondents. Primary data was collected through self-administered questionnaires and individual interviews conducted where gaps in data collection were found. The study revealed that Table Banking has increased ease of access of credit for micro and small enterprises who would normally not qualify for credit from formal financial institutions. It also revealed that Table Banking groups are lacking in capacity building, technology transfer and market linkages of the members. However, it was evident that social capital was a key component of Table Banking with mentorship, accountability and loan guarantee being the major benefits brought out by the respondents. Challenges of being in such groups were also not lacking, the major ones being non-serious members and loan defaulting. Nevertheless, 95% of the entrepreneurs involved in this study confidently said that their businesses had grown in terms of profitability, customer base, product diversification and asset base. In fact, the study revealed that most businesses in Table Banking Groups are between 0 and 2 years and by the time they hit their 3rd year, they are slowly outgrowing the groups; at this stage, they need bigger loans and more sophisticated technologies and trainings in order to grow further. The study recommends that proper structures and policies be put in place by the Government to ensure that these groups are nurtured so well that they do not fall out of the group as they grow. The study also recommends that further research is done on how other countries run this concept and how Kenya can make the concept work better for micro and small enterprises. 


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ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE FINANCIAL DISTRESS DETERMINANTS: A SURVEY OF NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS LISTED IN THE NSE

ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE FINANCIAL DISTRESS DETERMINANTS: A SURVEY OF NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS LISTED IN THE NSE

Caxton M. Ngeywo - Masters Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology, Kenya 

Prof. Stephen Nyambengera - Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology, Kenya


ABSTRACT

The public service of any country and in particular the civil service plays an indispensable role in the effective delivery of public services which is key to the functioning of a national economy.  It becomes imperative on the public service sector to look into production of new services or just an improvement of the current services and products or process which calls for innovation. The study’s objective was to determine the effects of performance contracting on innovation of the employees at Kenya Revenue Authority. Case study research design approach was adopted on a target population of 1052 employees at KRA headquarters. Using stratified sampling technique, 105 employees were selected from five departments and questionnaires administered. Descriptive and inferential analysis using chi-square and linear regression using ordinary least square method were adopted. The study found out that KRA employees have signed performance contracts whose terms they are moderately involved in drafting. Performance contracts enhanced employees’ ability to discharge duties, thus, service delivery. Besides, though they were rewarded when they improved the performance, promotions were not pegged on their innovativeness. The study concluded that performance contracting has had positive effect on process innovation though little effect on service or market innovations. The study recommends that employees should not feel bound by the terms in the performance contracts but their actions or performance should be motivated by moral obligation and personal ambitions; besides, the contracts’ targets or goals should be raised each year to encourage employees to aim higher and improve service delivery. 


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THE EFFECTS OF MIRAA TRADE ON FARMERS WEALTH: A CASE STUDY OF FARMERS IN MERU NORTH DISTRICT, KENYA

THE EFFECTS OF MIRAA TRADE ON FARMERS WEALTH:  A CASE STUDY OF FARMERS IN MERU NORTH DISTRICT, KENYA

Jeremiah K. Mailutha - Masters Student, Moi University, Kenya

Conlet W. Kikechi - Lecturer, Moi University, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Traditionally, miraa was used as a cultural symbol by the communities in the district, but the commodity has since been fully commercialized. Miraa trade is believed to affect people’s lives in various aspects ranging from economic, social, cultural, health and legal. The biggest part of the produce is being exported to European countries and other parts of the world. The research project proposal seeks to investigate the effects of Miraa trade among farmers in Meru North district of Eastern province. Miraa trade has been faced with a lot of opposition both from governments and organizational groups.  For example, the National Agency Control Against Drug Abuse (NACADA) has in many occasions called for ban of free trade of miraa in order to reduce its abuse. Various governments such as the United Kingdom have attempted to ban Miraa trade across their borders on the same premises. Worse of all, the government of the Republic of Tanzania has completely banned miraa trade within her borders. These decisions by governments and organizations have therefore attracted a lot of attention toward miraa trade in order to establish its importance or effects to the society. It is within this premise that the researcher intends to carry out a research to establish the effects of miraa trade on farmers, wealth in Meru North district. A descriptive research design will be used. Data for the research will be collected using structured questionnaires to be administered to farmers in six main locations of Meru North district. Each region will have twenty respondents making a total of 120 respondents. A structured questionnaire will be administered. Data obtained will be analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Likert type and semantic differentials will be used to assess the effects of Miraa trade among the farmers.


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