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ASSESSMENT OF BENEFITS AND RISKS OF OUTSOURCING ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SERVICES BY ORGANIZATIONS IN KENYA

ASSESSMENT OF BENEFITS AND RISKS OF OUTSOURCING ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SERVICES BY ORGANIZATIONS IN KENYA 

James Thiaine - Masters Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Prof. Robert Kinyua - Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Pius W.  Makhonge - Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IEET), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya


ABSTRACT

The research assessed the benefits and risks of outsourcing Environment, Health and Safety management in selected organizations in Nairobi.  The research used descriptive research design.  Sampling technique was random with a sample size of 42 workplaces. Primary data was collected through questionnaires and interview while secondary data was collected from review of relevant literature. Data analysis was done by means of SPSS software. Data was presented by means of text, tables, bar graphs and pie charts. The study found that there is a significant association between benefits and risks of outsourcing EHS management. The study found that the main reason for outsourcing EHS management is to have dynamic access to diverse and best EHS experts while the main benefit realized from outsourcing EHS management is improved compliance with EHS regulations.  The study found that the risks of outsourcing EHS management outweigh the benefits; hence organizations need to be cautious in deciding to outsource EHS management. The study found that the main aspects of EHS management usually outsourced to consultants are EHS auditing and training.  The study found that a blended model that entails managing EHS in-house and outsourcing some aspects to consultants is the best management model. The study recommends that organizations should be careful before deciding to outsource EHS management. Organizations should only outsource aspects that have to be done by consultants such as EHS audits. Organizations should also build in-house organizational capacity in EHS management. Organizations should periodically engage consultants to audit their EHS management system and bring in best practices from other organizations. Further research is needed to appraise the blended model of EHS management to identify its strengths and weaknesses. 


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EFFECTS OF E-PROCUREMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN FIVE STAR HOTELS IN NAIROBI CITY, KENYA

EFFECTS OF E-PROCUREMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN FIVE STAR HOTELS IN NAIROBI CITY, KENYA

Otieno Nelly Cynthia- Masters Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Mike A. Iravo - Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya


ABSTRACT

In the hotel business, the flow of goods, services, and information should be designed to efficiently transform raw materials into finished products/services with values. Lodging Services regularly purchase a large quantity of supplies for which procurement systems play a crucial role in maintaining daily operations and quality. Today, a major goal of a hotel’s supply chain management is to efficiently apply information technology to its procurement systems (Tanvi & Clark, 2005). The study was aimed at exploring how cost effectiveness can influence efficiency in supply chain management, the transparency that is brought about in E-procurement and time effectiveness brought about by E-procurement in five star hotels in Nairobi City Country. The study endeavored to use descriptive research design since it deals with clearly defined problems. The study targeted five star hotels in Nairobi City County which are fifteen in number. Convenience sampling was used in the study since the study is targeting respondents that have the right information. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires which had open and close ended questions. The data was later analyzed using SPSS version 20 for the purposes of generating results in form of tables and graphs for report writing. The study concluded that through e-procurement the cost of procurement has been reduced significantly in terms of the manpower needed as well as the materials that were used in conventional procurement. Transparency has also been achieved since cases of fraud have been reduced as well as the ability to follow up electronically on procurement activities that have become easier to manage. The procurement time has also been efficiently managed since most of the official documents are electronically generated while at the same time storage and retrieval of information has become easier and faster. The study recommends that organizations that want to have a competitive edge should adopt e-procurement to make their supply chains faster and more efficient.


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ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPLY CHAIN AGILITY ON FMCG MANUFACTURERS IN KENYA

ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPLY CHAIN AGILITY ON FMCG MANUFACTURERS IN KENYA

Maureen Bungei - Masters Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Gladys Rotich - Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya


ABSTRACT

The study sought to evaluate the role of Information Technology on supply chain agility on FMCG manufacturers in Kenya. In particular the study sought to achieve the following specific objectives:  to determine the role of backend integration, managerial competency, strategic partnership, Agent software on supply chain agility on FMCG manufacturers in Kenya with a case study of Unilever. The study used a descriptive research design which determines and reports things as presented.  A target population of 125 staff with a sample size of 95 staff was selected using a stratified sampling technique. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected using self-administered questionnaire, for the quantitative component of the study a self-administered five point Likert Scale questionnaire was administered. Descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis was carried out on quantitative data and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables while regression analysis was used to predict the effect of information technology on supply chain agility. The findings statistically concluded that there was a positive relationship between Backend Integration, Managerial Competency, Strategic partnership and Agent software technology and supply chain agility. It was recommended that the manufacturing sector should adopt and implement information technology and its innovation to enhance competitive advantage in their supply chain. Agile supply chains will promote the manufacturing sector to attain a sustained annual GDP growth of 10 per cent in realization of the Vision 2030.


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FACTORS AFFECTING ACCESS TO PROCUREMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN KENYA: A SURVEY OF LIMURU SUB-COUNTY

FACTORS AFFECTING ACCESS TO PROCUREMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN KENYA: A SURVEY OF LIMURU SUB-COUNTY

Mercy Wambui Gitari - Master of Science in Procurement and Logistics, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Karanja Kabare - Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Public procurement serves as one window through which public sector interacts with private sector. How such interaction is managed is very important in widening the base of participation by the private sector in public procurement. Though public procurement contracts vary mainly in size, some are clearly within the capabilities of Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) which are mostly owned by the youths. However, SMEs are sidelined from participating in public procurement despite their qualifications, sizes, level of production, comparative tallies of public contracts secured by SMEs in public secondary schools against those secured by large enterprises are still very small. The study sought to investigate the factors affecting access to public procurement opportunities by SMEs in public secondary schools in Limuru Sub-County. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effect of competence of tender committee members on access to procurement opportunities by SMEs, as well as to establish the effect of  regulatory framework implementation and to find out the effect of  tendering costs on access to procurement opportunities by SMEs in public secondary schools.  The study used survey design. The target population was  189 tender committee members in 21 public secondary schools. Stratified random technique was used to sample public secondary schools  according to their operational nature this include; full boarding, day schools and mixed day and boarding schools in Limuru Sub-County. Simple random technique was used to select 65 respondents, 55 of whom returned the questionnaires. The questionnaires were self administered through drop and pick them later method. The quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics using statistical package for social science (SSPS). Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages were used to profile the sample characteristics and major patterns from the data. Bar graphs and tables were used to present data. The study used Pearson’s correlation test (r) and alpha value p to establish the relationship between the dependant and the independent variables. The study established that competence level of tender committee members is too low and is a big challenge during award of tenders to suppliers, there is weak enforcement of procurement laws in public secondary schools and costs incurred during tendering and execution of the contracts discourage the SMEs form applying for the available opportunities.The study established that there is a negative relationship between tendering costs and access to procurement opportunities by SMEs in public secondary schools. The study revealed that there was no statistical significance of two variable of access to procurement opportunities by SMEs and level of competence of tender committee members in public secondary schools, and also regulatory framework implementation. This study recommends that PPOA should initiate training to  tender committee members on the formal tools and methods friendly to SMEs participation The government should incorporate cost reduction  strategies in  secondary schools procurement process that are within the law and more policies should be formed and implemented to improve on SMEs participation in public secondary schools procurement. 


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FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCUREMENT OF ERP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCUREMENT OF ERP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

Charity Nkonge - Masters Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Agnes Njeru - Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Re-insurance industry plays a key role in Kenya’s development. Very few companies have deployed Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system in their management of the supply chain despite the fact that ERP touches many core aspects of a firm’s operations; hence, its successful implementation and use are critical to performance and survival of an organization. In most cases, implementation of ERP fails at the procurement phase with translucent factors. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that affect the procurement of ERP. The specific objectives were to find out whether Information Technology Infrastructure, Legislative Issues and Supply Chain Functions Management affect the procurement of ERP. This Research adopted an exploratory study with a case study of Kenya-Reinsurance Corporation Ltd (Kenya Re). The target population for the study was the 120 employees in Kenya-Re. The sample size was50 respondents selected from different departments using stratified sampling method. Data was collected using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and charts and inferential statistics correlation analysis using SPSS computer software. The study concluded that IT infrastructure in public companies is not flexible because hence leading to either delays or avoidance of ERP procurement.  The study also concluded that the main legal cause of non-procurement of ERP in the public sector is as a result of external environment. The study recommends that ERP should be categorized as an essential supply as public policy framework should be enhanced to support faster decision making when it comes to procurement of ERP as it is very essential in the smooth running of the organization. The study also recommends that Public organizations should digitalize all their systems in readiness to the procurement of ERPs since all the systems to be supported by an ERP has to be digitalized since a successful ERP implementation requires a fit between the ERP system and the organizational processes it supports. Further research should be carried out to establish the skill levels and the effectiveness of the ERP trainers in public sector.


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ROLE OF SUPPLY CHAIN INTEGRATION ON SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE IN KENYAN STATE CORPORATIONS

ROLE OF SUPPLY CHAIN INTEGRATION ON SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE IN KENYAN STATE CORPORATIONS

Maureen Muthoni Njagi - Masters Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Prof. Martin Ogutu - Lecturer, University of Nairobi, Kenya


ABSTRACT

This research project set out to determine the impact of supply chain integration on supply chain performance in State Corporations in Kenya. It was motivated by the scarcity of studies on impact of supply chain integration on supply chain performance in State Corporations in Kenya. The research project was limited to State Corporations whose functions are strategic in nature as per the reclassification by the Presidential Task force on Parastatal Reforms of October 2013.A census study was conducted and questionnaires were used to obtain data in a bid to answer the following research questions; to what extent does integration of the internal operations in the supply chain affect supply chain performance in State Corporations in Kenya? To what extent does integration of the supplier in the supply chain affect supply chain performance in State Corporations in Kenya? To what extent does integration of the customer into the supply chain affect supply chain performance in State Corporations in Kenya? A total of 15 corporations were surveyed yielding a response rate of 78.9%. The study revealed that state corporations had achieved an above average level of integration in internal integration of operations, external integration with suppliers and external integration with suppliers at 57.6%, 54.8% and 59.4 % respectively. The findings also revealed a positive correlation in supply chain integration and supply chain performance.


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FACTORS INFLUENCING KENYAN TELECOMMUNICATION OPERATOR LOYALTY TO INTERNATIONAL SUPPLIERS OF WIRELESS EQUIPMENT

FACTORS INFLUENCING KENYAN TELECOMMUNICATION OPERATOR LOYALTY TO INTERNATIONAL SUPPLIERS OF WIRELESS EQUIPMENT

John Kipchumba Tanui - Master of Business Administration, University of Nairobi, Kenya


ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to identify the factors that influence wireless telecom operators’ loyalty and to identify the effect of switching barrier on customer loyalty in the telecommunications equipment supply industry. To satisfy the research objectives the author used a descriptive research design comprising a census survey of wireless telecommunication operators in Kenya. Primary data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. The questionnaire was administered through telephone survey, face to face interviews, or through email depending on the interviewee. The target respondents were the wireless telecoms operator companies’ staff and managers. The data analysis was done using mean scores, percentages and standard deviations. Where appropriate, the study results are presented in pie charts and graphs. The results of the study showed that the leading factors of selecting a vendor are reliability of equipments, technical support and low cost. The study found out that there is high satisfaction in most vendors’ operations and maintenance system (89%). 85% of the respondents were also satisfied with the performance of the equipments. Despite the willingness of the operators to switch vendors, there are still barriers that make this difficult. The cost of replacing equipments (37%) was considered to be prohibitive. The study recommends that the international suppliers of wireless telecom equipments should focus on customer satisfaction. This should be through provision of good product and service quality, and also maintaining reasonable costs of the equipment and services. The study further recommends that customer loyalty should be as a result of product benefits and not as a result of the switching costs which may be prohibitive. The study therefore recommends that competition among vendors should be encouraged to ensure that delivery of high quality services is maintained.  The study went further to recommend that switching barriers should be brought down so as to encourage competition in the industry. 


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FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONSTITUENCY DEVELOPMENT FUND PROJECTS IN MACHAKOS TOWN CONSTITUENCY, MACHAKOS COUNTY IN KENYA

FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONSTITUENCY DEVELOPMENT FUND PROJECTS IN MACHAKOS TOWN CONSTITUENCY, MACHAKOS COUNTY IN KENYA

Patrick N. Kairu - Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology, Kenya

Dr. P. Karanja Ngugi - Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Many constituencies are faced with challenges in implementing their constituency development fund projects.  During the financial years 2006 to 2012, the Auditor General’s and National Tax Payers’ reports revealed irregularities in procurement procedures and possible embezzlement of millions of shillings by skewing resource allocation, project selection and oversight in Machakos County. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess the factors affecting effective implementation of Constituency Development Fund projects specifically a case of Machakos Town Constituency in Machakos County in Kenya. The study examined the following variables that affect the effective implementation of CDF projects namely: utilization of allocated budget to various projects; the influence of level of education of the Projects Management Committee (PMC); the influence of community participation; and the level of involvement of technical officers. Descriptive research design, stratified proportionate random sampling techniques and inferential statistics were used. The target population was 330 CDF stakeholders from which a sample of 100 respondents was selected. Data collection was done using both structured and unstructured questionnaires, interview schedules and observation of records in the relevant offices. Questionnaires were administered to technical officers, CDFCs, PMCs, and projects’ beneficiaries. A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the validity and reliability of the instruments. The researcher used both the primary and secondary data in the analysis. The output was used to identify the effectiveness of independent variables to the dependent variable. Multiple regression and descriptive data analysis were used. The findings showed that the most significant variable was the level of education Project Management Committee members. However, the combined effect of all variables had relationships in effective implementation of CDF projects in Machakos Town Constituency. Further, the researcher recommends study on remaining constituencies in order to get an accurate description of the factors affecting effective implementation in Kenya.


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ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN LEARNING INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF KENYA MEDICAL TRAINING COLLEGE (KMTC)

ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN LEARNING INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF KENYA MEDICAL TRAINING COLLEGE (KMTC)

Peter K. Tum - Master of Science in Energy Management, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Patrick Mutinda - Master of Science in Electronics and Instrumentation, Kenyatta University, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Learning institutions consume a significant portion of the total tertiary electricity and hence could contribute to energy saving in Kenya if the right energy saving measures are put in place. For evidence-based design of such policies, it is important to understand the reasons behind the dynamics of the electricity consumption and its structure. According to the researcher’s investigation, there has neither been a research-focused targeted project aimed at monitoring electrical energy consumption nor an economical level of per capita consumption in learning institutions in Kenya. The main purpose of this survey was to determine overall energy consumption in learning institutions, a case study of Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC) and to explore modalities of ensuring reduced energy consumption for such institutions. The research focused on five campus as a representative of all the 30 campuses. Results from this study show that the five sampled institutions consumed a total of 2,158,799 KWh which cost the college approximately KSh. 35,836,063. Specifically, this work presented the design and implementation of a microcontroller based power monitoring system to allow for reduction of electrical consumption at KMTC-Nairobi and consequently reduce the per capita consumption. The monitoring system was implemented using a single chip MC68HC908 microcontroller to control the switch ON/OFF of lights depending on the level of illumination in the room. Approximately 27.7% power savings in electricity consumption was achieved by the use of this system. The study also experimented on the use of high efficiency lights instead of the conventional ones. Results showed that 7.8% energy saving was achieved. The overall energy saved by instituting these two measures was 35.5%. Other energy saving opportunities were explored in the study and recommendations presented.


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CORPORATE LOAN PORTFOLIO DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT AMONG COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA

CORPORATE LOAN PORTFOLIO DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT AMONG COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA 

Maubi Andrew Mokaya - Masters Student, Kenyatta University, Kenya

Dr. Ambrose Jagongo - Lecturer, Kenyatta University, Kenya


ABSTRACT

To minimize the total loan portfolio risk, it is important for commercial banks to consider diversifying their corporate loan portfolio. Yet, research indicates that the effect of such diversification has conflicting findings by various scholars. This study therefore sought to establish the association between corporate loan portfolio diversification and credit risk management among commercial banks in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study included: to determine the relationship between geographical diversification and credit risk management, to establish the relationship between industry diversification and credit risk management and to establish the relationship between the size of borrowing company and credit risk management among the commercial banks in Kenya. The study employed descriptive research design. The study targeted 86 respondents. Data was collected by use of a questionnaire. The obtained data was cleaned; coded and statistical outputs generated using SPSS. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The analyzed data was then presented in charts and tables. The study found out that there was no association between geographical diversification (p=0.113, r=0.197) and credit risk management, an association (p=0.001, r=0.515) between industry diversification and credit risk management and an association (p=0.004, r=-0.351) between size diversification and credit risk management at the banks. Consequently, the following recommendations were proposed; a framework is established that helps determine the size of the borrowing companies and their potential to grow over time, measures are put in place that helps identify borrowing companies based on specific parameters such as level of corporate tax and those that identifies borrowing companies based on competitive advantages in areas of existence other than mere geographical locality among other recommendations.


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PORTFOLIO FORMATION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM KHARTOUM STOCK EXCHANGE

PORTFOLIO FORMATION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM KHARTOUM STOCK EXCHANGE

Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi - Professor of Econometrics, Department of Econometrics & Social Statistics, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, University of Bakht Alruda, Sudan


ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the validity of the capital asset pricing model CAPM, the arbitrage pricing theory APT, and the three factor model of Fama and French at Khartoum Stock Exchange KSE that is. Cross sectional data of seven banks and Telecommunication Company (compose 97 percent of the KSE) for the period 2005-2011 was used. Empirical results showed that volatility computed via TARCH indicates the impact of the bad news on the conditional is twice as good news; in addition to the preference of generalized least squares over covariate (fixed effects) model as an estimation technique. Results are against the CAPM because the CAPM’s prediction that the intercept should equal zero has not been attained, and its main assumption i.e. the security market is efficient is violated. The APT showed no reaction to news from macroeconomic variables. Nevertheless APT out-performed Fama-French model and CAPM.


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CHALLENGES FACED BY ADULT FEMALE STUDENTS IN SOME FACULTIES: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE

CHALLENGES FACED BY ADULT FEMALE STUDENTS IN SOME FACULTIES: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE

Iro-Idoro Bose Charlotte - Office Technology Department, The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria

Aluko Olusegun Olarewaju - Department of Architecture, The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria

Ayodele Kolawole Olanrewaju - Office of Institutional Effectiveness, Babcock University Ilishan, Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria


ABSTRACT

All over the world today, learning has become the vehicle of welfare and prosperity and the access to it becomes crucial for economic and social inclusion. Like everywhere else in the world, the female adults in Nigeria are confronted with a lot of complex problems which has a continuous effect on our nation economically, socially and culturally. The purpose of this study was to explore the concerns of adult female Students in some faculties in Nigeria. The population included in the study was a convenient sample (N=200) of women who attended part time programmes in five higher institutions in Ogun State. Upon consent, participants were asked to complete the “Adult Female Students’ Concerns Scale” (AFCS). Data was analyzed using simple percentage, multiple regression. The participants demonstrated a mean value of 57.3 (SD 18.9) representing a strong conviction to academically improve themselves and a mean value of 69.7 representing a strong conviction on motivational factors. The results indicated that there is a meaningful difference between individual and environmental barriers to female education and order of effectiveness of barriers based on their age and marital status.


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